Improper diet

The correct diet must consist of foods of all food categories and always with the aim of maintaining the energy balance, usually the calories we take in are less than the energy needs of our body. 45-65% of calories should come from carbohydrates, 10-35% from protein, and 20-35% from fat. Carbohydrates should come mainly from low-glycemic index foods such as fruit and vegetables and avoid high-glycemic index foods such as rice, bread, or pitta bread. Refined grains (white rice, white bread, pasta) should be replaced by whole grains (brown rice, whole wheat bread) that contain more fiber, have a lower glycemic index, and help with weight loss. The proteins in our diet should come mainly from fish, poultry, eggs, milk, soy, and nuts. Red meat and processed industrial meats (burgers) that are rich in very harmful trans fatty acids should be avoided.

The fat in our food should come mainly from olive oil. The monounsaturated fatty acids contained in olive oil lower total cholesterol and do not affect good cholesterol. Eating foods rich in phytosterols (tahini, almonds, walnuts, special margarines) as well as foods with polyunsaturated fatty acids (fatty fish, wild grasses, nuts, vegetable seed oils) are rich in Ω3 and Ω6 fatty acids and contribute to cholesterol control. Foods containing saturated fatty acids (red meat, chicken, dairy) should be consumed in moderation and processed foods (junk food, snacks, cookies) rich in trans fatty acids should be completely avoided. The daily diet should be rich in plant fibers that help the bowel function well. Foods rich in plant fibers are vegetables (e.g. peas, spinach, green and dry beans), fruits (e.g. prunes), nuts and cereals. Most food packages list their fiber content. Daily intake should be around 20-35 grams (for example a cup of peanuts has 11 grams of fiber, while 11 prunes contain about 12 grams). Necessary in the daily diet are the micronutrients, such as sodium (about 6g of salt per day), calcium (1200mg of calcium per day), folic acid and vitamins A, D, E, K and the complex of B vitamins. Finally, correct nutrition also means the right way of eating. It is not enough to eat qualitatively, but also to eat correctly. We must follow a fixed daily schedule for our meals, never neglecting breakfast and not eating after nine in the evening. We always eat at the table, eat slowly and get up as soon as the food is finished.


Angelos P. Karatzaferis
Specialist Pathologist
Excellent Graduate of the School of Medicine of the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Specialty in Internal Pathology at the Pathological Physiology Clinic of the University of Athens